Heavy metal resistance Bacterium isolated from Krishna-Godavari basin, Bay of Bengal
Author(s)- Gunaseelan. C, Ruban P
This is one of the series of works explaining about the pollution in the marine environment due to which there arises a population of bacteria resistant to metals. The sediment samples were collected on Krishna-Godavari basin, (lat 130 07’ N and 190 20’ N and long 730 22’ E) Bay of Bengal. Totally 53 different organisms were obtained from the sediment samples on the half and full strength nutrient agar media. Which were morphologically and phenotypically characterized by employing staining methods and all these were subjected to metal resistance tests in different concentration. Of this 79.24% were found to be resistant against 350ppm of Mercury (11.53%), 250ppm of Cadmium (3.77%), 700ppm of Chromate (50.94%) and 13.20% of 250ppm of Zinc. The resistance could have developed due to the selective pressure exerted on the organisms by heavy metals as that pollute the marine atmosphere.
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Experimental Studies on analysis of rain water to predict air polluted zone / Unpolluted Zone
Author(s)- Amrut G.Gaddamwar
Now a day’s pollution increases day by day due to industrialization, population explosion, deforestation, and vehicular exhaust & by using fossils fuels which contains nitrogen, Sulphur, carbon. Out of these three N2, S does not under goes complete combustion which evolved in to atmosphere so the concentration of oxides of nitrogen, oxide of sulphur increases in atmosphere which cause pollution. Due to pollution climate changes, Global warming and Depletion of ozone takes place. Due to global warming if the temperature of earth increases by one degree then water level in the sea will increase by fifty centimeters which causes adverse effects on human beings. The countries like Netherland, Bangladesh, Maldives, shanghai in china, Mumbai and Goa in India will submerge under the sea water. Due to global warming the rate of evaporation of water from the seas, rivers, ponds will increases and this leads to untimely rains cyclones and hurricanes. Agriculture sector will be badly affected. Due to fast evaporation of surface water there will be a shortage of water for agriculture purposes. A slight increase in the global temperature adversely affects the world food production. Due to acid rain toxic effect to fresh aquatic life, damage to plants leaves, change in rate of photosynthesis in the plants and it also extensive damage to historical structural building, the PH of the soil changes which affect its fertility therefore it is necessary to control pollution and to control the pollution it is necessary to know whether observation zone is polluted or not. In the present work Author proved weather observed zone is polluted or not by simple analysis of rain water by using PH-meter and conductivity meter TDS-Meter by the measurement of PH, Conductivity, TDS of rain water we can predict weather studied zone is polluted or not.
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A report on Fluoride distribution in drinking Water
Author(s)- Veeraputhiran.V, Alagumuthu.G
High fluoride groundwater leads a health threat to millions of people around the world. This paper analyzes the most extensive database on fluoride and other chemical constituent distribution in arid tract of Ottapidaram block, Tamilnadu, India where it is the only source of drinking water. The study was conducted in the summer season (May – June, 2010). The water samples of 61 village panchayats were tested; 81.97% had injurious fluoride level above than 1.5 mg/L. The fluoride concentration in drinking waters varied from 0.936 to 4.34 mg/L in the study area. Due to the high concentration of fluoride, dental fluorosis was also identified. Majority of the samples do not comply with Indian as well as WHO standards for most of the water quality parameter. In addition, Fluoride concentration was not correlated with other physicochemical parameters significantly in ground water. Overall water quality was found as unsatisfactory for drinking purposes without any prior treatment except at eleven locations out of 61.
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The impact of various industrial developments on water resources may be in the range of minimal to severe. An intensive investigation was conducted in highly industrialized area of Angul to determine the water quality status. The industries such as coal mines of MCL, Aluminium Plant of NALCO and its CPP, Super Talcher Thermal Power Plant and Talcher Power Plant of NTPC etc. are situated along with the river stretches. The Brahmani river and their tributaries are the main source of the water for various industries activities within study areas. But at same time the industrial effluents, mine drainage water, untreated sewage from urban settlements, run-off from agricultural field, mining areas and open defecation on the river banks have been contributing the pollution load on the river water. The deterioration of river water quality may give adverse effect on human health and aquatic ecosystem directly or indirectly. This paper attempt to be focused on the overall status of river water resources and their management strategies.
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Carbon Dioxide as Natural Refrigerant
Author(s)– Padalkar A. S., Kadam A. D
The use of halogen based chemical compounds as refrigerant has compromised the existence of life on the earth. This fundamental paper discusses the suitability of natural refrigerant CO2 in refrigeration and air conditioning systems for high ambient climatic conditions encountered in India. The lower critical temperature of CO2 converts the subcritical vapour compression cycle to transcritical mode whenever the ambient temperature crosses the critical temperature of 31oC. The transcritical cycle gives lower cooling capacity and higher compressor power consumption which results in less energy efficiency of the system. The thermo-physical and transport properties of CO2 are much better than chemical refrigerants results in compact size of the system with competitive energy efficiency at lower ambient temperature. The matching of operation the transcritical air conditioning system with heating and cooling applications gives very high energy efficiency.
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