CFD Modeling and Experimental Validation of Combustion in Direct Ignition Engine Fueled with Diesel
Author(s)-Umakant V. Kongre, Vivek K. Sunnapwar
This paper describes the development and use of sub models for combustion analysis in direct injection (DI) diesel engine. In the present study the Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT is used to model complex combustion phenomenon in compression ignition (CI) engine. The experiments were accomplished on single cylinder and DI engine, with full load condition at constant speed of 1500 rpm. Combustion parameters such as cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise and heat release rate were obtained from experiment. The numerical modeling is solved by unsteady first order implicit, taking into account the effect of turbulence. For modeling turbulence Renormalization Group Theory (RNG) k- ε model is used. The sub-models such as droplet collision model and Taylor Analogy Breakup (TAB) model are used for spray modeling. The wall-film model is used to assess spray-wall interaction. Modeling in-cylinder combustion, species transport and finite-rate chemistry model is used with simplified chemistry reactions. The results obtained from modeling were compared with experimental investigation. Consequences in terms of pressure, rate of pressure rise and rate of heat release are presented. The rate of pressure rise and heat release rate were calculated from pressure based statistics. The modeling outcome is discussed in detail with combustion parameters. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that, the CFD modeling can be the reliable tool for modeling combustion of internal combustion engine.
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Variation of fluoride and correlation with alkalinity in groundwater of shallow and deep aquifers
Author(s) – Navneet Kumar
Fluoride in water is an essential element for human beings and its deficiency as well as high concentration both is injurious to human health. It is required for the protection against dental caries and weakening of bones. Groundwater in shallow aquifers that supply water to dugwells in and around Dhampur, Bijnor district of Uttar Pradesh, has higher concentrations of fluoride (F) than those of borewells from deep aquifers. Factors for variation in fluoride content between the two aquifer water types are discussed. The relative merits of the shallow water for potability are pointed out with respect to fluoride concentrations and public health. Fluoride occurs in almost all natural water supplies. Fluorides in high concentrations are not a common constituent of surface water, but they may occur in deterimental concentrations in ground waters.
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A report on Fluoride distribution in drinking Water
Author(s)- Veeraputhiran.V, Alagumuthu.G
High fluoride groundwater leads a health threat to millions of people around the world. This paper analyzes the most extensive database on fluoride and other chemical constituent distribution in arid tract of Ottapidaram block, Tamilnadu, India where it is the only source of drinking water. The study was conducted in the summer season (May – June, 2010). The water samples of 61 village panchayats were tested; 81.97% had injurious fluoride level above than 1.5 mg/L. The fluoride concentration in drinking waters varied from 0.936 to 4.34 mg/L in the study area. Due to the high concentration of fluoride, dental fluorosis was also identified. Majority of the samples do not comply with Indian as well as WHO standards for most of the water quality parameter. In addition, Fluoride concentration was not correlated with other physicochemical parameters significantly in ground water. Overall water quality was found as unsatisfactory for drinking purposes without any prior treatment except at eleven locations out of 61.
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