CO2 emissions, economic growth and energy consumption in Iran: A co-integration approach
Author(s)- Saboori.B, Soleymani.A
This study examines the dynamic relationship among carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, economic growth and energy consumption based on the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for Iran during the period 1971–2007. Auto regressive distributed lag (ARDL) methodology is employed as the estimation method. The results obtained suggest the existence of three forms of long-run relationship among variables when CO2 emissions, economic growth and energy consumption are the dependent variables. The results do not support the EKC hypothesis which assumes an inverted U-shaped relationship between income and environmental degradation. The long-run results indicate energy consumption has a positive and significant impact on CO2 emissions. The stability of the variables in estimated model is also examined. The result suggests that the estimated model is stable over the sample period.
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Carbon Dioxide as Natural Refrigerant
Author(s)– Padalkar A. S., Kadam A. D
The use of halogen based chemical compounds as refrigerant has compromised the existence of life on the earth. This fundamental paper discusses the suitability of natural refrigerant CO2 in refrigeration and air conditioning systems for high ambient climatic conditions encountered in India. The lower critical temperature of CO2 converts the subcritical vapour compression cycle to transcritical mode whenever the ambient temperature crosses the critical temperature of 31oC. The transcritical cycle gives lower cooling capacity and higher compressor power consumption which results in less energy efficiency of the system. The thermo-physical and transport properties of CO2 are much better than chemical refrigerants results in compact size of the system with competitive energy efficiency at lower ambient temperature. The matching of operation the transcritical air conditioning system with heating and cooling applications gives very high energy efficiency.
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